A quick guide to some everyday Git commands

When I first started developing code the idea of version control was pretty much unknown, especially in the world of web development. As I progressed through my career and worked at different software companies I learned as much as I could and I’ve now settled into the daily routine of committing, branching, pushing and pulling. While this might sound vaguely naughty, if you are writing any sort of code, you should really look into version control. My current favourite is Git.

I’m not going to get into installing and setting up Git. This article is designed merely as a resource of common Git commands, mainly because I tend to forget them 😉 I’ll be adding commands to this list as I need (and discover) them.

If you are on a Mac or Unix type machine you will have a Bash style command line you can use, if you are on Windows I highly recommend using GitBash.

At the moment if you want to use version control and Git, you’re two big choices are GitHub and Bitbucket. I use both, GitHub for public projects and Bitbucket for private projects. Most of the commands listed below will be ones that I use for Bitbucket repositories, but they are also relevant to GitHub. Either or them gives you a step by step guide to creating, initialising and configuring your code folder to work with your repository.

Commands:

git add –all

This allows you to add all new files to your git repository. It’s not 100% ideal as it might add files you don’t want to necessarily add at this point, but it’s quick and easy.

git commit -a

This command will commit your current changes to the repository and prompt you to enter a message for the commit. I prefer it to using the -m (message) swtich because I can see all the files that have changed for my commit message. If you are using GitBash, you will also need to know how to use Vim style editor commands.

git push -u origin master

This command will push all changes on the current master branch to the remote repository.

git checkout <branch_name>

Switches to the branch ‘branchname’

git checkout -b <branch_name>

Creates and switches to the branch ‘branchname’.

git push -u origin<branch_name>

Push all committed changes to the branch ‘branchame’ to the remote repository.

git push –all

Pushes all branches to the remote repository.

git pull

Pulls all changes from the remote repository. Useful once you have merged a pull request.

git push origin –delete <branch_name>

Delete a remove branch

git branch -D <branch_name>

Delete a local branch, which has NOT already been fully merged

git branch -d <branch_name>

Delete a local branch, which has already been fully merged

git branch -m new-name

Rename your local branch to new-name.

git branch -m old-name new-name

Rename a different branch to new-name

git push origin :old-name new-name

Delete the old-name remote branch and push the new-name local branch.

git push origin -u new-name

Reset the upstream branch for the new-name local branch.

git reset –hard [commit-id]

Reset a branch back to a specific commit (by id)

git push -f origin [branch]

Push changes reverted by the above command to the remote version of your local branch

git checkout develop
git rebase master

This moves the entire develop branch to begin on the tip of the master branch, effectively incorporating all of the new commits that were included in master.

Move a commit to the correct branch, for example, commited to the develop branch instead of some feature branch

git checkout feature/branch
git merge develop

git checkout develop
git reset –hard HEAD~1

Update ~1 with the amount of commits you want to reset the develop branch by

git remote prune origin –dry-run

Lists branches that can be deleted/pruned on your local environment (ie merged/deleted on the remote)

git remote prune origin

Prune any merged/deleted branches from your local environment

(credit Fizer Khan)

Other cool Git commands from people around the web

Because I always forget how to set up a new or existing git repository

Create a new repository
git clone git@github.com:jonathanbossenger/reponame.git
cd reponame
touch README.md
git add README.md
git commit -m "add README"
git push -u origin master
Push an existing folder
cd existing_folder
git init
git remote add origin git@github.com:jonathanbossenger/reponame.git
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit"
git push -u origin master
Push an existing Git repository
cd existing_repo
git remote rename origin old-origin
git remote add origin git@github.com:jonathanbossenger/reponame.git
git push -u origin --all
git push -u origin --tags

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